It's been a busy month on the blog with plenty for Iain and Simon to talk about. The Manchester Arena bombing, new guidelines for Anaphylaxis management, Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Calcium in Major Haemorrhage and Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection all get a mention alongside the usual witterings of two middle aged emergency physicians.
This is the second in a two part podcast series discussing Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) and how these patients may present to the Emergency Department (ED). Dr Sam Fitzsimmons, our guest on the podcast, is a Consultant in Adult Congenital Heart Disease at University Hospital Southampton. There is more information in this blog post.
In this episode we discuss Eisenmenger Syndrome, Transposition of the Great Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta.
This is the first in a two part podcast series discussing Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) and how these patients may present to the Emergency Department (ED). Dr Sam Fitzsimmons, our guest on the podcast, is a Consultant in Adult Congenital Heart Disease at University Hospital Southampton. There is more information in this blog post.
Look out for Part 2, which will be released next week, where we discuss Eisenmenger Syndrome, Transposition of the Great Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta.
With advances in paediatric cardiac surgery, more and more patients with complex congenital heart disease are surviving to adulthood: in the 1950s you might expect a survival rate of about 10%, whereas now this is more like 85%. In fact, there are more patients in the adult congenital heart disease population than there are in the paediatric one (with 2.3 million adults vs 1.9 million children in Europe).
Many patients with Adult Congenital Heart Disease are young and able to live a relatively normal life. This means that they can travel and take part in just the same sort of activities as those without ACHD. They may well turn up in your Emergency Department one day, regardless of whether you are a tertiary centre or a district general hospital (DGH).
They are experts, and know their disease well, but this does not abstain you from a responsibility to know about them too! When these patients become unwell, they can go downhill very fast and you may not have the chance to discuss with them their exact lesion and its management.
The anatomy and physiology of these patients is abnormal, so they may present in atypical ways, and may not respond to usual medical interventions: in fact, some of our usual treatments may even be harmful.
However, starting with our usual 'ABC' approach is by far the best way to go, whilst gathering more information and contacting their specialist centre. Many patients will have their last clinic letter and ECG with them (which will also have the direct dial number of their specialist). And if they, or their relative, say there is something wrong you must believe them and do all you can to make sure they are fully investigated.
The presence of scars may give you some clues as to the patient's underlying condition and previous surgical repairs. (BMJ 2016; 354: i3905)
A General Approach
- Do your usual ABC assessment.
- Pay particular attention to the respiratory rate - this should be normal.
- Give oxygen if they look unwell.
- They should have a 'normal' blood pressure - any hypotension should be taken as abnormal and investigated.
The Fontan Circulation
This is not a condition in itself, but in fact the resulting circulation after a series of operations that could've been performed due to a number of different underlying conditions:
- Tricuspid Atresia
- Double Inlet Left Ventricle
- Atrio-ventricular Septal Defect – unbalanced
- Pulmonary Atresia
- Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
In essence these patients are born with a single functioning ventricle, that has to be utilised to supply the systemic side of the circulation, whilst the Fontan acts as a passive means of returning blood to the pulmonary circulation.
It was first devised in the early 1970s by Dr Francis Fontan, so the majority of patients with this are in their mid thirties and younger.
Potential reasons for admission to the ED - Fontan circulation
As the patient is entirely dependent on their systemic ventricle to work optimally, any disturbance of the delivery into it is very poorly tolerated. Thus, any arrhythmia is life threatening, even a mild atrial tachycardia.
These patients need to be returned to sinus rhythm as quickly as possible and the recommended method for this is DC cardioversion in expert hands.
Fontan patients have an incredibly fragile circulation and any change in their respiratory physiology can be life threatening, especially if it increases their pulmonary pressures (and thus prevents the passive flow within the Fontan circulation). These patients are not candidates for sedation in the ED and should have an experienced anaesthetist to manage them during the procedure.
Beware if the patient comes in and tells you they are fasted! This means they have been in this situation before and needed DC cardioversion.
Over time the patient develops venous hypertension within the Fontan connection. This causes the formation of collateral vessels, that may link into the bronchial arterial tree.
If the patient presents in shock treat them as you would any other patient with emergency blood transfusion.
Any haemoptysis, however small, may herald the beginning of a massive bleed. These patients need further investigation, probably a CT chest with contrast. These vessels may then be coiled by interventional radiology.
If the patient has a non fenestrated Fontan they should have normal oxygen saturations. However, if there is a fenestration there will be shunting and therefore a reduction in oxygenation.
For patients this is trade of between being pink or blue, each of which have complications.
Dr Sam Fitzsimmons
Dr Sam Fitzsimmons is a Consultant Cardiologist in Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) at the University Hospital Southampton, UK. Sam also subspecialises in pulmonary hypertension and maternal cardiology. Working within a tertiary surgical ACHD centre, Sam delivers an ACHD on call service for emergency admissions, inpatient care, routine outpatient follow-up, intra-operative imaging and post-surgical care, as well as specialist clinics in Pulmonary Hypertension and Maternal Cardiology. Sam holds a Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer post with the University of Southampton as she is passionate about teaching and in particular, she is enthusiastic about helping demystify congenital heart disease for many non-specialist to improve patient care. Sam is well published in peer review journals, cardiology textbooks and specialist guidelines.
A podcast with Iain and Simon summarising all the latest content from the St Emlyn's blog in April 2021. Topics discussed include Vaccine Induced Thrombocytopenic Thrombosis, how our own biases can effect our critical appraisal and whether we need to worry about grading the quality of FOAMed resources.
Thanks for listening. Please check out the blogs themselevs at www.stemlynsblog.org and consider subscribing and rating us on iTunes.
If you'd like to see some more from Peter Brindley you can watch one of his SMACC talks here.
Simon and Iain also talk about the latest results from the RECOVERY trial, Major Trauma Triage tools, cricothyroidotomy, thromboprophylaxis in COVID19 and the new Medical Licensing Assessment for medical students and the new St Emlyn's Undergraduate Curriculum
An audio review of a paper in the Journal of Intensive Care Medicine with two of the authors.
Assessing on-line medical education resources: A primer for acute care medical professionals and others
Our regular podcast round up from February 2021. Iain and Simon highlight the key learning points from this month on the St Emlyn’s blog and podcast.
Topics discussed this month include tocilizumab in COVID19, TIA risk scores, new Emergency Care standards (targets) and TXA use in epistaxis. We also pay tribute to Dr Cliff Mann, former President of RCEM who sadly died this month.
Please remember to subscribe to the podcast on iTunes/Google Play and please do leave us some reviews and ratings there.
Our regular round up of the best of the blog and podcast from January 2021 with Iain and Simon. The St Emlyn's blog posts from January 2021 are discussed, including plenty about Coronavirus as well as other topics relevant to anyone interested in Emergency Medicine and evidence based care.
Going into hospital as an emergency during the COVID-19 pandemic must be extremely scary for patients and their relatives. With no relatives allowed to visit and staff dressed in full PPE, the experience must be so much more unnerving than usual. Add to that the incredible worry about catching COVID-19 for those who don’t already have it; or the worry about what might happen for those who do. Will they pull through? Could this be the end?
I’m privileged to be co-leading the COvid-19 National DiagnOstic Research and evaluation programme (CONDOR), which involves a collaboration between amazing teams in Manchester, Oxford, Leeds, Newcastle, London and Nottingham. The programme evaluates diagnostic tests for COVID-19.
We’re extremely lucky to have two very experienced and proactive patient and public representatives as members of our steering committee: Graham Prestwich from Leeds and Val Tate from Oxford.
I recently spoke with Graham and Val to get their thoughts about how we, as clinicians, might effectively communicate with patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. They provide their important insights from a lay perpsective about what they would want from their clinician.
We cover everything from the challenges of communicating while wearing PPE to the way to answer important questions like, “Am I going to die?”, which many of us have, I’m sure, had to answer on a number of occasions over the past 12 months.
I hope that you enjoy the podcast. We realise that 25 minutes wasn’t long enough to cover everything we’d have liked to.We’d really like to know what you think. Are there things that we haven’t covered that you’d like us to? What are your experiences? We’d love you to share your thoughts in the chat!
A vaccine update with Rick Body, Simon Carley, Pam Vallely, Paul Klapper and Charlie Reynard. Bringing RCEM, St Emlyn's and the University of Manchester together for the latest thoughts and wisdom on the vaccines that might get us out of this pandemic.
Moderna vaccine phase 3 trial - https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa2022483
Oxford vaccine phase 2/3 - https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(20)32466-1.pdf
Pfizer vaccine trial - https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577
#vaccines #COVID19 #coronavirus
A special festive edition of our round up podcast featuring six weeks of blog posts and plenty more besides.
From all at St Emlyn's we hope you have a very happy festive season and we cannot wait to talk to you again in 2021.
Simon and all the team
Rick leads the FALCON and CONDOR studies that are currently evaluating COVID-19 studies in the UK. Nobody knows more about how we can practically use COVID-19 testing than Rick and in this podcast he takes us through what is available and how we might use it in the future.
A great listen and lots to learn.
A bumper edition of the podcast where Iain and Simon discuss TXA (twice), antibiotics in appendicits, VTE, Blood products in trauma, use of ultrasound in cardiac arrest and plasma in traumatic brain injury. Oh, and COVID19 (but not for long)...
An evidence based cornucopia of aural pleasure.
Please like and subscribe (as all podcasters seem to say).
In this special edition of the podcast, Liz Crowe discusses with Iain how we can find contentment, despite the relentless nature of COVID19 and the impending second wave. She gives practical, realistic advice that everyone can consider and encourages us all to be kind to ourselves in these strange and difficult times.
Welcome to our audio round up of everything on the blog during September.
It's been a relatively quiet on the blog post this month, but we chat through not only blogposts on the REMAP-CAP trial, TXA in Head Injury and the ISARIC COVID Risk prediction tool, but also the situation in the North of England and the recent RCEM Virtual Conference.
The numbers of Lesson Plans available continue to grow. We've had some great feedback following their use in induction. If tyou've not seen them yet, do have a look and let us know what you think. If you're interesed in learning more about Baysian thinking this Lesson Plan is a good place to start.
Interview with Ian Roberts on the pharmacokinetic trial of intramuscular tranexamic acid.
Blog link here
Welcome to our audio round up of everything on the blog during August.
As the world continues to be in the grips of the Coronavirus pandemic there have been more papers looking at all aspects of this disease.
Simon reviewed the latest paper on Hydroxychloroquine and Charlie collated some of the top papers covering aspects from aerosol spread and use of CPAP to the effect on vulnerable groups and the effect on staff psychological health
It's not all COVID though. Sepsis is a condition we all want to be able to treat more effectively. Sadly there doesn't seem to be any encouraging news about the use of Vitamin C, Steroids and Thiamine in this latest RCT.
Many of the St Emlyn's group have special expertise in toxicology and Gareth wrote this incredibly informative post about the use of GBL. If you're not sure what "ChemSex" is then this post from a few years ago by Janos is worth a read.
The anonymously written "Look at what they make you give" post really struck a chord with readers, with an astonishing number of views. There are messages here for us all.
The numbers of Lesson Plans available continue to grow. We've had some great feedback following their use in induction. If tyou've not seen them yet, do have a look and let us know what you think.
Our own version of Buy One Get One Free* this month, where you get a round up of two months of blog content.
Coronavirus continues to dominate the medical (and non-medical) headlines, and we discuss the two major results from the RECOVERY trial published recently, one positive and one not so (depending on who you talk to....). Simon also catches up with Roberto Cosentini, who you'll remember from the very powerful podcast at the beginning of the pandemic.
COVID isn't the only EBM circus in town though: we've reviewed HALT-IT and Simon has given a talk about the "Ten Top Trauma Papers" of the last year and Laura reviewed a paper looking at haloperidol for headaches.
We're having to think even harder about how we communicate in the ED, both for clinical care and to deliver education. Two ideas to help learning have been featured this month: The St Emlyn's Lesson Plans and "Background Learning".
Good luck to all those starting in Emergency Medicine, and a huge thank you to all those who are moving to other areas of medicine or other departments. It's been a curious few months...
*It's actually Get One Free Get Another Free, but whose ever heard of that?
We are delighted to introduce you to the "St Emlyn's Lesson Plans", which we hope will help structure some of your education sessions over coming months (and years).
Each lesson plan starts with a descrete learning outcome, to set the scene, as well as details of the RCEM curriculum item(s) that will be covered.
The first tasks are aimed at aquiring some background knowledge and can either be done as part of the session, or beforehand. These utilise the vast "FOAMed" resources (including, but not exclusively, those of St Emlyn's).
Our experience is that time constraints often mean that "background reading" isn't achieved before the session, so would encourage allowing time within it to complete these. They are designed to take about 30 minutes and occupy the first half of the session.
Everything you need for each lesson is included in the plan. We would recommend that each learner has an internet enabled device available (with headphones) to read and listen to the background material at their own pace.
The second half of the session should be facilitated by an expert. This can happen in person, but also online, via any of the interfaces that are now so familiar.
In many plans we have given some case examples, but it would be even better if learners can bring cases of their own for discussion. This element is very much within the control of the facilitator (who should been fully cogniscent of the contents of the knowledge section).
The session finishes off with a summary, this should emphasise again the most important learning points. To really embed the knowledge and skills the particiapants should be encouraged to reflect on what they have learned, and to even talk to thse who were unable to attend about what they missed.
For learners this also gives an opportunity to easily link teaching sessions to their portfolio.
You may want to record the "face-to-face" elements, so that those who were not present are able to access them when they can (and those that did can rewatch to refresh their learning).
Although these plans are designed for delivery in a single centre, there is absolutely no reason why regional (or even national) teaching could take place in this way. The recent COVID19 Journal Clubs have demonstrated beautifully how a group of learners can engage with an online panel.
We would be very happy to receive lessons plans to add to the collection. This is very much a collaborative effort.
Please let us know what you think of these lesson plans and if you are using them in your Department. We'd love to hear your ideas about how we can take medical education forward.
St Emlyn's three professors, Carley, Body and Horner* critically appraise the Press Release regarding Dexamethasone in the treatment of COVID-19.
What does this mean for the future of Evidence Based Medicine? Can we really start using a medication when the trial hasn't been peer reviewed and the full dataset not released?
The blog post by Josh Farkas, that is mentioned in the podcast, is here.
*Professor Simon Carley, Professor of Emergency Medicine at Manchester Metropolitan University and a Consultant in Adult and Paediatric Emergency Medicine at Manchester Foundation Trust, Professor Rick Body Professor of Emergency Medicine in Manchester and Honorary Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Manchester Foundation Trust. Professor Dan Horner, Professor of Emergency Medicine of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine and Consultant in Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care at Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust.
Keep a look out for the new St Emlyn's Lesson Plans that we hope will help usher in a new era of medical education in a socially distanced world.
If you would like to donate to the fund in the memory Adel Aziz you can find the link here.
We hope you're finding all of our output useful. Please do subscribe to the website (in the top right hand corner) and rate our podcast on iTunes.
Podcast edited by Izzy Carley
PS You can find the Lesson Plans here. Still a work in progress, but as you've read these "shownotes" you deserve to have a sneak preview...
Welcome to our seventh webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn's.
The live event took place on Tuesday 26th May.
Today's panel will be hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa Jafar, Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Ellie Hothershall (Consultant in Public Health), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Kelly Ann Janssens (Emergency Physician in Ireland) to discuss five papers about COVID-19 infection.
This will be the last weekly journal club, but we will be back with more EBM goodness very soon. Do let us know what you like to be included at firstname.lastname@example.org
Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. Published online May 22, 2020. doi:10.1056/nejmoa2007764
Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. The Lancet. Published online May 2020. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31180-6
Gray N, Calleja D, Wimbush A, et al. “No test is better than a bad test”: Impact of diagnostic uncertainty in mass testing on the spread of Covid-19. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.20067884
Peyrony O, Marbeuf-Gueye C, Truong V, et al. Accuracy of Emergency Department clinical findings for diagnostic of coronavirus disease-2019. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Published online May 2020. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.022
Ludvigsson JF. Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID‐19 pandemic – a systematic review. Acta Paediatr. Published online May 19, 2020. doi:10.1111/apa.15371
Welcome to our sixth COVID-19 Journal Club Podcast.
The panel was hosted by Rick Body and included Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa Jafar, Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Liz Crowe (Advanced Clinician Social Worker and PhD candidate in health staff wellbeing in Brisbane) to discuss four papers about COVID-19 infection. We were especially pleased to welcome Liz this week, which enabled us to focus on the important topics of grief, loss and communication during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Welcome to our fifth webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.
The live event took place on Tuesday 12th May at 11.00am BST (10.00am GMT).
The COVID-19 Journal Club Panel
Today’s panel was hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Dan Horner, Dr Anisa Jafar, Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Lauren Westafer (Attending in Emergency Medicine and Co-Creator of the Foamcast blog and podcast) and Ellie Hothershall (head of undergraduate medicine at the University of Dundee and an expert in Public Health) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.
Over the last few years many of us in the UK have started to incorporate high-sensitivity troponin into the assessment of patients presenting with chest pain.
We have seen these samples taken at ever shorter intervals, aiming to discharge low risk patients safely, sooner from the Emergency Department (ED). This has been driven in part by the "Four Hour Emergency Access Target" as well as increased crowding in overwhelmed EDs.
In this podcast, internationally renowned researcher Prof Rick Body discusses the latest in troponin research and the recent LoDED study.
The various organisations mentioned by Rick can be found here:
The CQUIN that will be implemented later this year (page 15 for the Troponin section)
Welcome to our fourth webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn's.
The live event tool place on Tuesday 5th May at 11.30am BST (10.30am GMT).
The panel was again be hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Justin Morgenstern to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.
There will be another COVID 19 Journal Club next week (Tuesday 12th May at 11am).
Podcast edited from a live webinar by Izzy Carley
It's been another busy month at St Emlyn's, with the publication of 15 blog posts and five podcasts, but there does seem to be an awful lot to talk about!
Of course there have been multiple posts and podcasts about COVID-19, and you can fiind all of these on our special St Emlyn's page. Highlights have included the three RCEM/St Emlyn's Webinars which we are delighted to host in podcast form.
Parts of the site have also undergone a bit of a redesign with the curriculum pages now easier to navigate to find that post to fioll an e-portfolio hole.
We hope you're finding all of our output useful. Please do subscribe to the website (in the top right hand corner) and rate our podcast on iTunes.
They'll be much more to come in May I am sure.
Podcast edited by Izzy Carley
Welcome to our third webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.
The live event took place on Tuesday 28th April at 11am BST (10am GMT).
The panel was hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Dan Horner (RCEM Professor), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Salim Rezaie (Emergency Physician and Founder of REBEL EM) and Prof Simon Carley (you know him…) to discuss five papers about COVID-19 infection. There will be another COVID 19 Journal Club next week (Tuesday 5th May at 11am).
Edited by Izzy Carley and Iain Beardsell
Helms J. High risk of thrombosis in patients in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Medicine. April 2020:1-21. https://www.esicm.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/863_author_proof.pdf.
Caputo ND, Strayer RJ, Levitan R. Early Self‐Proning in Awake, Non‐intubated Patients in the Emergency Department: A Single ED’s Experience during the COVID‐19 Pandemic. Acad Emerg Med. April 2020. doi:10.1111/acem.13994
Garcia FP, Perez Tanoira R, Romanyk Cabrera JP, Arroyo Serrano T, Gomez Herruz P, Cuadros Gonzalez J. Rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by detecting IgG and IgM antibodies with an immunochromatographic device: a prospective single-center study. April 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20062158
Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, et al. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. April 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775
Metzler B, Siostrzonek P, Binder R, Bauer A, Reinstadler S. Decline of acute coronary syndrome admissions in Austria since the outbreak of COVID-19: the pandemic response causes cardiac collateral damage. Eur Heart J. April 2020. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa314
Welcome to our second webinar on recent research about COVID-19, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.
The panel was hosted by Rick Body. The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer), Dr Casey Parker and Prof Simon Carley (you know him…) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.
The live event took place on Tuesday 21st April 2020
Paper 1 (00:00) Tang W, Cao Z, Han M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. April 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20060558
In this podcast, Dan and Iain talk about the clinical journey of a COVID-19 patient, beyond the ED, with insights from the critical care unit. There are some concepts here that we don’t have time to do full justice to in the podcast, so there is a comprehensive set of "show notes" and all the references at www.stemlynsblog.org/covid-19-and-critical-care
Professor Rick Body is joined by Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynolds (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer) and Prof Simon Carley (you know him...) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.
03:10 - Paper 1 – Guan et al. Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 in China. NEJM Feb 28 2020
16:54 Paper 2 – Zou et al. Single Cell RNA-SEQ Data Analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-NCOV infection. Frontiers of Medicine. Mar 12 2020.
21:43 Paper 3 – Gautret et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment of COVID-19: Results of an open-label non-randomised clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 20 Mar 2020
25:25 Paper 4 – Cao et al. A trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19. NEJM Mar 18 2020
29:35 Paper 5 – Cui et al. Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe Coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Apr 9 2020 doi:10.1111/jth.14830
34:14 Paper 6 – Lynarts et al. Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 infection: systematic review and critical appraisal. BMJ. Apr 7 2020 BMJ 2020;369:m1328
John a Sports and Exercise Medicine Consultant in Manchester. He is also Chief Medical Officer for British Triathlon and Visiting Professor in Sport & Exercise Medicine at Manchester Metropolitan University.
Nathan is lead performance nutrition scientist at the English Institute of Sport and at ORRECO.
These two academics take us through how sports science might be able to support our wellbeing during the Covid19 pandemic.
- Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tejs20
- Probiotics https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3/epdf/full
- Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23840373/
- Vitamin C for prevention and treatment of pneumonia https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013134/full
- Vitamin C and common cold https://www.cochrane.org/CD000980/ARI_vitamin-c-for-preventing-and-treating-the-common-cold
- Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27184276/
- Vitamin C and Infections https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28353648/
- Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28515951/
The world is consumed by the Coronavirus pandemic, but how do we look after ourselves? Liz and Iain discuss some strategies to stay well over the coming weeks and months. Recorded on 25th March 2020.
Simon chats to Sarah Thornton, consultant anaesthetist, intensivist and head of the NW school of anaesthesia on preparing to work in a critical care unit during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Dr Roberto Cosentini is an old friend of St Emlyn's who works in Bergamo, in Northern Italy. He is right at the heart of the recent Covid19 outbreak. He kindly found an hour to record a podcast with us on his experiences.
There are so many essential lessons in this podcast. Please share with clinical and non-clinical colleagues, as we need to plan NOW. Roberto is quite clear that if we don't train and get plans into place before the wave of cases hit us then both ourselves and our patients will suffer.
In the interest of speed I'm not going to summarise the whole podcast. You have to listen to it all yourself to see what's relevant to you. These are some of my take away messages.
- Divide your department into resp patients and non-resp patients
- Wear PPE and know how to use it
- You will need clinicians who do not usually work in ED. Train and orientate them now (before you need them).
- Most patients are hypoxic and this responds to O2 and CPAP. You're going to need a lot of CPAP and how that happens could be tricky. They found hoods the best (Ed - but how many of those do we have?).
- Although hypoxic, patients have good lung compliance.
- They regularly saw diurnal variation with many patients presenting in the early afternoon.
- It's emotionally exhausting. Prepare yourself and your team psychologically and support them during the pandemic. Roberto's department has an embedded psychologist.
- Health care worker infections were quite low (because they wore PPE for all resp cases).
- Flow through the department and onto wards is absolutely vital.
- Flow out the the main hospitals to other units that can rehabilitate is vital.
- Decisions for ICU level care were similar to normal (in his hospital)
We rarely declare one of our podcasts a 'must listen' but this is an exception. Please listen and share widely. Please think hard about the issues Roberto raises and PLEASE ACT NOW.
How you can support St Emlyn's
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Simon and Zaf talk about the practicialities of REBOA and discuss whether it's ready for prime time in the UK.
Our regular round up of the best of the blog from September 2019. A fairly quiet month for us, but some great content including a fabulous video from Cliff Reid on the Zero Point survey and on a related resus note, the concept of the UK resuscitationist with Dan Horner.
See more on the blog here https://www.stemlynsblog.org/jc-tranexamic-acid-txa-in-head-injury-the-crash-3-results-st-emlyns/
A vox pop round up of the best of the ERC19 conference in Slovenia.
Our latest podcast from the #stemlynsLIVE conference last year. Dan Horner talks on the concept and potential role of the UK Resuscitationist.
The best from the blog and podcast in July 2019.
Similar challenges, different approaches – Mass Casualty Incident training lessons from Pakistan. St Emlyn’s