The St.Emlyn’s Podcast

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November 27, 2022  

Ep 207 - Burnout with Liz Crowe

Burnout is a term that seems to be used a lot these days, but what does it really mean? In this episode Dr Liz Crowe explains all, and will almost certainly change the way you view burnout. 

Liz, who be well known to St Emyn's audiences, has just completed her PhD on "Understanding the risk and protective factors for burnout and wellbeing of staff working in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit: PICU staff wellbeing" and has an unrivalled real world and evidence based experience of what these terms really mean.

In this first in a special series Loz goes into depth describing not only what burnout is, but how it can be measured (and the limitations of this) and most importantly how this is a system issue and not a diagnosis.

In the next episode we will discuss another commonly used term 'wellbeing'.

We think this series is incredibly important and hope you will help us share it far and wide. You can read the accompanying blogpost here.

November 14, 2022  

Ep 206 - October 2022 Round Up

In our new regular slot of the middle Monday of the month we're delighted to bring you the highlights from the St Emlyn's blog this month.,

Iain and Simon chat about batching in EDs, Ossilation in decision making and a whole lot more about trauma (chest drains, extrication, sex and TXA and rib fixation).

Please do like and subscribe and keep an eye out for our new sister website St Emlyn's Medical School and it's podcast series coming soon. 

October 18, 2022  

Ep 205 - September 2022 Round Up

Join Iain and Simon for this month's round up of September's blog content from St Emlyn's. They discuss managing harm in the ED; management of traumatic brain injury; Head Up mechanical CPR and fentanyl in RSI.

Lots to think about and discuss. Please do like and subscribe and get in touch if there is anything you'd like us to cover on the blog and podcast, or perhaps you'd even like to write something for publication. 

October 8, 2022  

Ep 204 - August 2022 Round Up

This is our round up of all that happened on the St Emlyn's blog in August 2022 (yes - we know it's a bit late, but there's been a lot going on!).

Listen to Simon and Iain discuss the latest therapies in COVID, particularly Baricitinib, calcium in trauma and how we find balance in our work-life blend.

Please do like and subscribe to the podcast and tell your friends and colleagues. We've lots of exciting stuff coming your way over the next few months.

August 7, 2022  

Ep 203 - June and July 2022 Round Up

Simon and Iain run through the latest highlights from the St Emlyn's blog and podcast, including the FORCE study, the EXIT study and more about Vitamin C in sepsis...


We hope you enjoy the podcast. Please do like and subscribe on your preferred podcast app and tell your friends and colleagues about us. 

June 16, 2022  

Ep 202 - May 2022 Round Up

Our monthly round up of all from the St Emlyn's blog. We discuss pathways into emergency care research, pad positioning in cardioversion of AF and possible gender differences in the presciption of TXA in trauma.

We also chat about travel in Lithuania, memories of defibrillating with hand held paddles and Simon's recent forst infection with COVID.

We mention a post on Lyme disease which you can read here (especially if you live near the New Forest...)


May 12, 2022  

Ep 201 - March/April 2022 Round Up

After a brief hiatus we're back with more from the St Emlyn's Blog. We discuss a wide range of topics from crowding in Emergency Departments and the RePHILL trial to breastfeeding, genetic testing and diagnosing DVTs, as well as our highlights from the recent RCEM CPD Conference in Bournemouth. There really is something for everyone! 

March 25, 2022  

Ep 200 - February 2022 Round Up

We made it! A double century of podcasts. In this month's update Iain and Simon talk through myth busting in resuscitation, Rick Body's airway expertise (with a side mention for high sensitivity troponin), a paper about resuscitative thoracotomy, ACPs in EM and how we all could set future research priorties.

Thank you again for listening to the St Emlyn's podcast. We really do hope that you enjoy it and have found our witterings over the last 200 episodes useful. 

Hopefully we'll see some of you at the RCEM CPD Conference in Bournemouth next week. 

Please do rate us on iTunes, like, subscribe, tweet and tell you friends about the podcast. 

March 12, 2022  

Ep 199 - Feedback: Update and inter-speciality complexity. St Emlyn’s

Simon and Natalie discuss some of the complexities of feedback when it involved different specialities and patients. We also review our general rules of feedback.


See for more.

February 22, 2022  

Ep 198 - January 2022 Round Up

The first episode of our 9th Season with discussion about Calcium in cardiac arrest, a deep dive into the physiology of exsanguinating haemorrhage, a comparison of ketamine and etomidate for induction of anaesthesia and the ECG Thrust. 

Please do like, subscribe and tell your friends about the St Emlyn's podcast. 

January 14, 2022  

Ep 197 - December 2021 Round Up

The Season Finale that you've all be waiting for. Our last episode of season 8 includes discussion about racial bias in sats monitoring, CT scans to investigate subarachnoid haemorrhage and the  importance of (consensual) touch. 

Thanks again for listening. Please like and subscribe and all that. We look forward to seeing you next season (in about a month...)

Iain and Simon

December 14, 2021  

Ep 196 - November 2021 Round Up

Iain is flying solo this month, with discussion about narrative story tellling, airway management in the ED and using pigtail catheters in management of haemothorax

We hope all you all have a very happy Christmas and chance over the festive period to relax. Do explore our back catalogue of podcasts for more on wellbeing and grief at Christmas

Please do subscribe and rate and review us on your chosen podcast provider. 

Take care all. 

November 19, 2021  

Ep 195 - October 2021 Round Up

Our round up of all the blog had to offer in October 2021. There's discussion about evidence based medine in the REST and CTCA for intermediate chest pain trials, more about cauda equina and highlights from the Paediatric Colloquium in Australia, as well as the good humoured chat.

Please see the website for more information and don't forget to subscribe and rate the podcast (if you think it's any good).  

September 25, 2021  

Ep 194 - August 2021 Round Up

The round up of the St Emlyn's blog posts in August 2021, featuring discussion about therapeutic anticoagulation in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, non invasive ventilation vs usual care for critically hypoxic COVID-19 patients and the recent EMTA (Emergency Medicine Trainees Association) survey. Oh, and Simon's mid-life crisis. 

August 8, 2021  

Ep 193 - June and July 2021 Round Up

Iain and Simon discuss the best from the blog in June and July. There's COVID chat (of course). thunderstorm asthma, a glance into the future and much, much more. 

June 17, 2021  

Ep 192 - May 2021 Round Up

It's been a busy month on the blog with plenty for Iain and Simon to talk about. The Manchester Arena bombing, new guidelines for Anaphylaxis management, Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Calcium in Major Haemorrhage and Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection all get a mention alongside the usual witterings of two middle aged emergency physicians. 

May 26, 2021  

Ep 191 - Adult Congenital Heart Disease in the ED: Part 2

This is the second in a two part podcast series discussing Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) and how these patients may present to the Emergency Department (ED). Dr Sam Fitzsimmons, our guest on the podcast, is a Consultant in Adult Congenital Heart Disease at University Hospital Southampton. There is more information in this blog post.

In this episode we discuss Eisenmenger Syndrome, Transposition of the Great Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta. 

May 20, 2021  

Ep 190 - Adult Congenital Heart Disease in the ED: Part 1

This is the first in a two part podcast series discussing Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) and how these patients may present to the Emergency Department (ED). Dr Sam Fitzsimmons, our guest on the podcast, is a Consultant in Adult Congenital Heart Disease at University Hospital Southampton. There is more information in this blog post.

Look out for Part 2, which will be released next week, where we discuss Eisenmenger Syndrome, Transposition of the Great Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta. 


With advances in paediatric cardiac surgery, more and more patients with complex congenital heart disease are surviving to adulthood: in the 1950s you might expect a survival rate of about 10%, whereas now this is more like 85%. In fact, there are more patients in the adult congenital heart disease population than there are in the paediatric one (with 2.3 million adults vs 1.9 million children in Europe).

Many patients with Adult Congenital Heart Disease are young and able to live a relatively normal life. This means that they can travel and take part in just the same sort of activities as those without ACHD. They may well turn up in your Emergency Department one day, regardless of whether you are a tertiary centre or a district general hospital (DGH).

They are experts, and know their disease well, but this does not abstain you from a responsibility to know about them too! When these patients become unwell, they can go downhill very fast and you may not have the chance to discuss with them their exact lesion and its management.

The anatomy and physiology of these patients is abnormal, so they may present in atypical ways, and may not respond to usual medical interventions: in fact, some of our usual treatments may even be harmful.

However, starting with our usual 'ABC' approach is by far the best way to go, whilst gathering more information and contacting their specialist centre. Many patients will have their last clinic letter and ECG with them (which will also have the direct dial number of their specialist). And if they, or their relative, say there is something wrong you must believe them and do all you can to make sure they are fully investigated.



The presence of scars may give you some clues as to the patient's underlying condition and previous surgical repairs. (BMJ 2016; 354: i3905)


A General Approach

  • Do your usual ABC assessment.
  • Pay particular attention to the respiratory rate - this should be normal.
  • Give oxygen if they look unwell.
  • They should have a 'normal' blood pressure - any hypotension should be taken as abnormal and investigated.

The Fontan Circulation

This is not a condition in itself, but in fact the resulting circulation after a series of operations that could've been performed due to a number of different underlying conditions:


  • Tricuspid Atresia
  • Double Inlet Left Ventricle
  • Atrio-ventricular Septal Defect – unbalanced
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

In essence these patients are born with a single functioning ventricle, that has to be utilised to supply the systemic side of the circulation, whilst the Fontan acts as a passive means of returning blood to the pulmonary circulation.


It was first devised in the early 1970s by Dr Francis Fontan, so the majority of patients with this are in their mid thirties and younger.

Potential reasons for admission to the ED - Fontan circulation

1, Arrythmia

As the patient is entirely dependent on their systemic ventricle to work optimally, any disturbance of the delivery into it is very poorly tolerated. Thus, any arrhythmia is life threatening, even a mild atrial tachycardia.

These patients need to be returned to sinus rhythm as quickly as possible and the recommended method for this is DC cardioversion in expert hands.

Fontan patients have an incredibly fragile circulation and any change in their respiratory physiology can be life threatening, especially if it increases their pulmonary pressures (and thus prevents the passive flow within the Fontan circulation). These patients are not candidates for sedation in the ED and should have an experienced anaesthetist to manage them during the procedure.

Beware if the patient comes in and tells you they are fasted! This means they have been in this situation before and needed DC cardioversion.

2, Haemoptysis

Over time the patient develops venous hypertension within the Fontan connection. This causes the formation of collateral vessels, that may link into the bronchial arterial tree.

If the patient presents in shock treat them as you would any other patient with emergency blood transfusion.

Any haemoptysis, however small, may herald the beginning of a massive bleed. These patients need further investigation, probably a CT chest with contrast. These vessels may then be coiled by interventional radiology.

3, Cyanosis

If the patient has a non fenestrated Fontan they should have normal oxygen saturations. However, if there is a fenestration there will be shunting and therefore a reduction in oxygenation.

For patients this is trade of between being pink or blue, each of which have complications.

Dr Sam Fitzsimmons

Dr Sam Fitzsimmons is a Consultant Cardiologist in Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) at the University Hospital Southampton, UK. Sam also subspecialises in pulmonary hypertension and maternal cardiology. Working within a tertiary surgical ACHD centre, Sam delivers an ACHD on call service for emergency admissions, inpatient care, routine outpatient follow-up, intra-operative imaging and post-surgical care, as well as specialist clinics in Pulmonary Hypertension and Maternal Cardiology. Sam holds a Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer post with the University of Southampton as she is passionate about teaching and in particular, she is enthusiastic about helping demystify congenital heart disease for many non-specialist to improve patient care. Sam is well published in peer review journals, cardiology textbooks and specialist guidelines.



May 14, 2021  

Ep 189 - April 2021 Round Up

A podcast with Iain and Simon summarising all the latest content from the St Emlyn's blog in April 2021. Topics discussed include Vaccine Induced Thrombocytopenic Thrombosis, how our own biases can effect our critical appraisal and whether we need to worry about grading the quality of FOAMed resources.

Thanks for listening. Please check out the blogs themselevs at and consider subscribing and rating us on iTunes. 

If you'd like to see some more from Peter Brindley you can watch one of his SMACC talks here

May 6, 2021  

Ep 188 - India COVID19 wave in Spring 2021

Simon joins Ankur Verma from Delhi, to talk about the impact of COVID in the latest wave devastating India.

April 11, 2021  

Ep 187 - March 2021 Round Up

A discussion about all the latest from the St Emlyn's blog, including a hot off the press article about vaccine induced thrombocytopenic thrombosis and the new FRCEM revision guide

Simon and Iain also talk about the latest results from the RECOVERY trial, Major Trauma Triage tools, cricothyroidotomy, thromboprophylaxis in COVID19 and the new Medical Licensing Assessment for medical students and the new St Emlyn's Undergraduate Curriculum 

April 8, 2021  

Ep 186 - Assessing online medical education resources with Peter Brindley

An audio review of a paper in the Journal of Intensive Care Medicine with two of the authors.

Assessing on-line medical education resources: A primer for acute care medical professionals and others


March 15, 2021  

Ep 185 - February 2021 Round Up

Our regular podcast round up from February 2021. Iain and Simon highlight the key learning points from this month on the St Emlyn’s blog and podcast.

Topics discussed this month include tocilizumab in COVID19, TIA risk scores, new Emergency Care standards (targets) and TXA use in epistaxis. We also pay tribute to Dr Cliff Mann, former President of RCEM who sadly died this month. 

Please remember to subscribe to the podcast on iTunes/Google Play and please do leave us some reviews and ratings there.

February 20, 2021  

Ep 184 - January 2021 Round Up

Our regular round up of the best of the blog and podcast from January 2021 with Iain and Simon. The St Emlyn's blog posts from January 2021 are discussed, including plenty about Coronavirus as well as other topics relevant to anyone interested in Emergency Medicine and evidence based care. 

February 18, 2021  

Ep 183 - Am I going to die? Communicating COVID-19 test results and risk (January 2020)

Going into hospital as an emergency during the COVID-19 pandemic must be extremely scary for patients and their relatives. With no relatives allowed to visit and staff dressed in full PPE, the experience must be so much more unnerving than usual. Add to that the incredible worry about catching COVID-19 for those who don’t already have it; or the worry about what might happen for those who do. Will they pull through? Could this be the end?

I’m privileged to be co-leading the COvid-19 National DiagnOstic Research and evaluation programme (CONDOR), which involves a collaboration between amazing teams in Manchester, Oxford, Leeds, Newcastle, London and Nottingham. The programme evaluates diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

We’re extremely lucky to have two very experienced and proactive patient and public representatives as members of our steering committee: Graham Prestwich from Leeds and Val Tate from Oxford.

I recently spoke with Graham and Val to get their thoughts about how we, as clinicians, might effectively communicate with patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. They provide their important insights from a lay perpsective about what they would want from their clinician.

We cover everything from the challenges of communicating while wearing PPE to the way to answer important questions like, “Am I going to die?”, which many of us have, I’m sure, had to answer on a number of occasions over the past 12 months.

I hope that you enjoy the podcast. We realise that 25 minutes wasn’t long enough to cover everything we’d have liked to.We’d really like to know what you think. Are there things that we haven’t covered that you’d like us to? What are your experiences? We’d love you to share your thoughts in the chat!


January 17, 2021  

Ep 182 - COVID-19 vaccines update (January 2021)

A vaccine update with Rick Body, Simon Carley, Pam Vallely, Paul Klapper and Charlie Reynard. Bringing RCEM, St Emlyn's and the University of Manchester together for the latest thoughts and wisdom on the vaccines that might get us out of this pandemic.


Moderna vaccine phase 3 trial -

Oxford vaccine phase 2/3 -

Pfizer vaccine trial -


#vaccines #COVID19 #coronavirus

December 17, 2020  

Ep 181 - Christmas 2020 Round Up

A special festive edition of our round up podcast featuring six weeks of blog posts and plenty more besides.

From all at St Emlyn's we hope you have a very happy festive season and we cannot wait to talk to you again in 2021.

Take care,

Simon and all the team

November 27, 2020  

Ep 180 - Understanding COVID-19 testing with Professor Rick Body (October 2020)

Rick leads the FALCON and CONDOR studies that are currently evaluating COVID-19 studies in the UK. Nobody knows more about how we can practically use COVID-19 testing than Rick and in this podcast he takes us through what is available and how we might use it in the future. 

A great listen and lots to learn. 

November 6, 2020  

Ep 179 - October 2020 Round Up

A bumper edition of the podcast where Iain and Simon discuss TXA (twice), antibiotics in appendicits, VTE, Blood products in trauma, use of ultrasound in cardiac arrest and plasma in traumatic brain injury. Oh, and COVID19 (but not for long)...

An evidence based cornucopia of aural pleasure.

Please like and subscribe (as all podcasters seem to say).

Take care,


October 24, 2020  

Ep 178 - Surviving the Second Wave with Liz Crowe (October 2020)

In this special edition of the podcast, Liz Crowe discusses with Iain how we can find contentment, despite the relentless nature of COVID19 and the impending second wave. She gives practical, realistic advice that everyone can consider and encourages us all to be kind to ourselves in these strange and difficult times. 

October 20, 2020  

Ep 177 - September 2020 Round Up

Welcome to our audio round up of everything on the blog during September.

It's been a relatively quiet on the blog post this month, but we chat through not only blogposts on the REMAP-CAP trial, TXA in Head Injury and the ISARIC COVID Risk prediction tool, but also the situation in the North of England and the recent RCEM Virtual Conference.

The numbers of Lesson Plans available continue to grow. We've had some great feedback following their use in induction. If tyou've not seen them yet, do have a look and let us know what you think. If you're interesed in learning more about Baysian thinking this Lesson Plan is a good place to start.

Take care,



October 1, 2020  

Ep 176 - JC: Can we give tranexamic acid (TXA) via the IM route? (October 2020)

Interview with Ian Roberts on the pharmacokinetic trial of intramuscular tranexamic acid.


Blog link here

September 10, 2020  

Ep 175 - August 2020 Round Up

Welcome to our audio round up of everything on the blog during August. 

As the world continues to be in the grips of the Coronavirus pandemic there have been more papers looking at all aspects of this disease.

Simon reviewed the latest paper on Hydroxychloroquine and Charlie collated some of the top papers covering aspects from aerosol spread and use of CPAP to the effect on vulnerable groups and the effect on staff psychological health

It's not all COVID though. Sepsis is a condition we all want to be able to treat more effectively. Sadly there doesn't seem to be any encouraging news about the use of Vitamin C, Steroids and Thiamine in this latest RCT.

Many of the St Emlyn's group have special expertise in toxicology and Gareth wrote this incredibly informative post about the use of GBL. If you're not sure what "ChemSex" is then this post from a few years ago by Janos is worth a read.

The anonymously written "Look at what they make you give" post really struck a chord with readers, with an astonishing number of views. There are messages here for us all.

The numbers of Lesson Plans available continue to grow. We've had some great feedback following their use in induction. If tyou've not seen them yet, do have a look and let us know what you think.

August 1, 2020  

Ep 174 - June and July 2020 Round Up

Our own version of Buy One Get One Free* this month, where you get a round up of two months of blog content.


Coronavirus continues to dominate the medical (and non-medical) headlines, and we discuss the two major results from the RECOVERY trial published recently, one positive and one not so (depending on who you talk to....). Simon also catches up with Roberto Cosentini, who you'll remember from the very powerful podcast at the beginning of the pandemic.


COVID isn't the only EBM circus in town though: we've reviewed HALT-IT and Simon has given a talk about the "Ten Top Trauma Papers" of the last year and Laura reviewed a paper looking at haloperidol for headaches.


We're having to think even harder about how we communicate in the ED, both for clinical care and to deliver education. Two ideas to help learning have been featured this month: The St Emlyn's Lesson Plans and "Background Learning". 


Good luck to all those starting in Emergency Medicine, and a huge thank you to all those who are moving to other areas of medicine or other departments. It's been a curious few months...


Take care,



*It's actually Get One Free Get Another Free, but whose ever heard of that?

June 25, 2020  

Ep 173 - The St Emlyn’s Lesson Plans

We are delighted to introduce you to the "St Emlyn's Lesson Plans", which we hope will help structure some of your education sessions over coming months (and years).

Each lesson plan starts with a descrete learning outcome, to set the scene, as well as details of the RCEM curriculum item(s) that will be covered.

The first tasks are aimed at aquiring some background knowledge and can either be done as part of the session, or beforehand. These utilise the vast "FOAMed" resources (including, but not exclusively, those of St Emlyn's).

Our experience is that time constraints often mean that "background reading" isn't achieved before the session, so would encourage allowing time within it to complete these. They are designed to take about 30 minutes and occupy the first half of the session.

Everything you need for each lesson is included in the plan. We would recommend that each learner has an internet enabled device available (with headphones) to read and listen to the background material at their own pace.

The second half of the session should be facilitated by an expert. This can happen in person, but also online, via any of the interfaces that are now so familiar.

In many plans we have given some case examples, but it would be even better if learners can bring cases of their own for discussion. This element is very much within the control of the facilitator (who should been fully cogniscent of the contents of the knowledge section).

The session finishes off with a summary, this should emphasise again the most important learning points. To really embed the knowledge and skills the particiapants should be encouraged to reflect on what they have learned, and to even talk to thse who were unable to attend about what they missed.

For learners this also gives an opportunity to easily link teaching sessions to their portfolio.

You may want to record the "face-to-face" elements, so that those who were not present are able to access them when they can (and those that did can rewatch to refresh their learning).

Although these plans are designed for delivery in a single centre, there is absolutely no reason why regional (or even national) teaching could take place in this way. The recent COVID19 Journal Clubs have demonstrated beautifully how a group of learners can engage with an online panel.

We would be very happy to receive lessons plans to add to the collection. This is very much a collaborative effort.

Please let us know what you think of these lesson plans and if you are using them in your Department. We'd love to hear your ideas about how we can take medical education forward.

June 19, 2020  

Ep 172 - Dexamethasone and COVID - Show us the Data! (June 2020)

St Emlyn's three professors, Carley, Body and Horner* critically appraise the Press Release regarding Dexamethasone in the treatment of COVID-19.

What does this mean for the future of Evidence Based Medicine? Can we really start using a medication when the trial hasn't been peer reviewed and the full dataset not released? 

The blog post by Josh Farkas, that is mentioned in the podcast, is here.

*Professor Simon Carley, Professor of Emergency Medicine at Manchester Metropolitan University and a Consultant in Adult and Paediatric Emergency Medicine at Manchester Foundation Trust, Professor Rick Body Professor of Emergency Medicine in Manchester and Honorary Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Manchester Foundation Trust. Professor Dan Horner, Professor of Emergency Medicine of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine and Consultant in Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care at Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust.

June 13, 2020  

Ep 171 - May 2020 Round Up

Lots to chat about on the podcast this month, and not just COVID! There's been blog posts about clots, troponin and even telly, as well as the Journal Club series.


Keep a look out for the new St Emlyn's Lesson Plans that we hope will help usher in a new era of medical education in a socially distanced world. 


If you would like to donate to the fund in the memory Adel Aziz you can find the link here.


We hope you're finding all of our output useful. Please do subscribe to the website (in the top right hand corner) and rate our podcast on iTunes


Take care



Podcast edited by Izzy Carley

PS You can find the Lesson Plans here. Still a work in progress, but as you've read these "shownotes" you deserve to have a sneak preview... 

June 4, 2020  

Ep 170 - COVID-19 Journal Club #7 (June 2020)

Welcome to our seventh webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn's.


The live event took place on Tuesday 26th May.

Today's panel will be hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa Jafar, Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Ellie Hothershall (Consultant in Public Health), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Kelly Ann Janssens (Emergency Physician in Ireland) to discuss five papers about COVID-19 infection.

This will be the last weekly journal club, but we will be back with more EBM goodness very soon. Do let us know what you like to be included at


  1. Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. Published online May 22, 2020. doi:10.1056/nejmoa2007764
  2. Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. The Lancet. Published online May 2020. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31180-6
  3. Gray N, Calleja D, Wimbush A, et al. “No test is better than a bad test”: Impact of diagnostic uncertainty in mass testing on the spread of Covid-19. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.20067884
  4. Peyrony O, Marbeuf-Gueye C, Truong V, et al. Accuracy of Emergency Department clinical findings for diagnostic of coronavirus disease-2019. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Published online May 2020. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.022
  5. Ludvigsson JF. Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID‐19 pandemic – a systematic review. Acta Paediatr. Published online May 19, 2020. doi:10.1111/apa.15371
Podcast edited from a live webinar by Iazzy Carley


May 22, 2020  

Ep 169 - COVID-19 Journal Club #6 (May 2020)

Welcome to our sixth COVID-19 Journal Club Podcast.


The panel was hosted by Rick Body and included Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa JafarProf Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Liz Crowe (Advanced Clinician Social Worker and PhD candidate in health staff wellbeing in Brisbane) to discuss four papers about COVID-19 infection. We were especially pleased to welcome Liz this week, which enabled us to focus on the important topics of grief, loss and communication during the COVID-19 pandemic.


1. Williamson E, Walker AJ, et al. OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19-related hospital death in the linked electronic health records of 17 million adult NHS patients. May 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20092999
2. Menni C, Valdes AM, Freidin MB, et al. Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19. Nat Med. May 2020.
3. Liu Y, Ning Z, Chen Y, et al. Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature. April 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2271-3
4. Selman LE, Chao D, Sowden R, Marshall S, Chamberlain C, Koffman J. Bereavement support on the frontline of COVID-19: Recommendations for hospital clinicians. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. May 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.024
Podcast edited from a live webinar by Izzy Carley
May 15, 2020  

Ep 168 - COVID-19 Journal Club #5 (May 2020)

Welcome to our fifth webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.

The live event took place on Tuesday 12th May at 11.00am BST (10.00am GMT). 

The COVID-19 Journal Club Panel

Today’s panel was hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Dan HornerDr Anisa JafarProf Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Lauren Westafer (Attending in Emergency Medicine and Co-Creator of the Foamcast blog and podcast) and Ellie Hothershall (head of undergraduate medicine at the University of Dundee and an expert in Public Health) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.

1. Lai S, Ruktanonchai NW, Zhou L, et al. Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 in China. Nature. May 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2293-x
2. Paranjpe I, Fuster V, Lala A, et al. Association of Treatment Dose Anticoagulation with In-Hospital Survival Among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. May 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.001
3. Thanh L, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, et al. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2020;19(5):305-306. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5
4. Bryan A, Pepper G, Wener MH, et al. Performance Characteristics of the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay and Seroprevalence in Boise, Idaho. J Clin Microbiol. May 2020. doi:10.1128/jcm.00941-20
5. Treibel TA, Manisty C, Burton M, et al. COVID-19: PCR screening of asymptomatic health-care workers at London hospital. The Lancet. May 2020. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31100-4
6. Altmann S, Milsom L, Zillessen H, et al. Acceptability of app-based contact tracing for COVID-19: Cross-country survey evidence. May 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20091587
Podcast edited from a live webinar by Izzy Carley
May 13, 2020  

Ep 167 - Troponin Update and LoDED Study Review with Rick Body

Over the last few years many of us in the UK have started to incorporate high-sensitivity troponin into the assessment of patients presenting with chest pain.

We have seen these samples taken at ever shorter intervals, aiming to discharge low risk patients safely, sooner from the Emergency Department (ED). This has been driven in part by the "Four Hour Emergency Access Target" as well as increased crowding in overwhelmed EDs.

In this podcast, internationally renowned researcher Prof Rick Body discusses the latest in troponin research and the recent LoDED study.


The Shownotes


The various organisations mentioned by Rick can be found here:


The Innovation Agency Webinar Series


The NHS Accelerated Access Collaborative


The CQUIN that will be implemented later this year (page 15 for the Troponin section)


The Draft NICE recommendations



May 7, 2020  

Ep 166 - COVID-19 Journal Club #4 (May 2020)

Welcome to our fourth webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn's.


The live event tool place on Tuesday 5th May at 11.30am BST (10.30am GMT). 


The panel was again be hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Prof Simon Carley and special guest Justin Morgenstern to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.


There will be another COVID 19 Journal Club next week (Tuesday 12th May at 11am).



1. He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. Published online April 15, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5
2. Bahl P, Doolan C, de Silva C, Chughtai AA, Bourouiba L, MacIntyre CR. Airborne or Droplet Precautions for Health Workers Treating Coronavirus Disease 2019? The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Published online April 16, 2020. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa189.
3. Wang Y, Zhang D, Du G, et al. Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. The Lancet. Published online April 2020. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31022-9
4. Rajendran K, Narayanasamy K, Rangarajan J, Rathinam J, Natarajan M, Ramachandran A. Convalescent plasma transfusion for the treatment of COVID‐19: Systematic review. J Med Virol. Published online May 2020. doi:10.1002/jmv.25961
5. Tedeschi S, Giannella M, Bartoletti M, et al. Clinical impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on in-hospital mortality of patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Published online April 27, 2020. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa492
6. Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al. Features of 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol. Published online April 28, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.23.20076042


Podcast edited from a live webinar by Izzy Carley 

May 3, 2020  

Ep 165 - April 2020 Round Up


It's been another busy month at St Emlyn's, with the publication of 15 blog posts and five podcasts, but there does seem to be an awful lot to talk about!


Of course there have been multiple posts and podcasts about COVID-19, and you can fiind all of these on our special St Emlyn's page. Highlights have included the three RCEM/St Emlyn's Webinars which we are delighted to host in podcast form.


It's not just been coronavirus though, we have also dipped out toes into exercise and nutrition, graphic design and horticulture!


Parts of the site have also undergone a bit of a redesign with the curriculum pages now easier to navigate to find that post to fioll an e-portfolio hole.



We hope you're finding all of our output useful. Please do subscribe to the website (in the top right hand corner) and rate our podcast on iTunes.


They'll be much more to come in May I am sure.


Take care



Podcast edited by Izzy Carley


April 30, 2020  

Ep 164 - COVID-19 Journal Club #3

Welcome to our third webinar and journal club reviewing recent research and featuring COVID-19 updates, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.

The live event took place on Tuesday 28th April at 11am BST (10am GMT).

The panel was hosted by Rick Body The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Dr Dan Horner (RCEM Professor), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Salim Rezaie (Emergency Physician and Founder of REBEL EM) and Prof Simon Carley (you know him…) to discuss five papers about COVID-19 infection. There will be another COVID 19 Journal Club next week (Tuesday 5th May at 11am).

Edited by Izzy Carley and Iain Beardsell


  1. Helms J. High risk of thrombosis in patients in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Medicine. April 2020:1-21.
  2. Caputo ND, Strayer RJ, Levitan R. Early Self‐Proning in Awake, Non‐intubated Patients in the Emergency Department: A Single ED’s Experience during the COVID‐19 Pandemic. Acad Emerg Med. April 2020. doi:10.1111/acem.13994
  3. Garcia FP, Perez Tanoira R, Romanyk Cabrera JP, Arroyo Serrano T, Gomez Herruz P, Cuadros Gonzalez J. Rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by detecting IgG and IgM antibodies with an immunochromatographic device: a prospective single-center study. April 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20062158
  4. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, et al. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. April 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775
  5. Metzler B, Siostrzonek P, Binder R, Bauer A, Reinstadler S. Decline of acute coronary syndrome admissions in Austria since the outbreak of COVID-19: the pandemic response causes cardiac collateral damage. Eur Heart J. April 2020. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa314
April 25, 2020  

Ep 163 - COVID-19 Journal Club #2

Welcome to our second webinar on recent research about COVID-19, hosted by the University of Manchester, Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with St Emlyn’s.

The panel was hosted by Rick Body. The panel includes Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynard (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer), Dr Casey Parker and Prof Simon Carley (you know him…) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection.

The live event took place on Tuesday 21st April 2020


Paper 1 (00:00) Tang W, Cao Z, Han M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. April 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20060558

Paper 2 (12:09) Bendavid E, Mulaney B, Sood N, et al. COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California. April 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463
Paper 3 (16:40) Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature. April 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x
Paper 4 (23:33) Favas C. Guidance for the Prevention of COVID-19 Infections among High-Risk Individuals in Camps and Camp-like Settings. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; 2020:1-15. Accessed April 21, 2020.
Paper 5 (30:30) Zeng J-H, Liu Y-X, Yuan J, et al. First case of COVID-19 complicated with fulminant myocarditis: a case report and insights. Infection. April 2020. doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01424-5
Paper 6 (35:02) Caruso D, Zerunian M, Polici M, et al. Chest CT Features of COVID-19 in Rome, Italy. Radiology. April 2020:201237. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020201237
Podcast edited by Izzy Carley and Iain Beardsell
April 22, 2020  

Ep 162 - Beyond the ED: COVID-19 and Critical Care with Dan Horner

In this podcast, Dan and Iain talk about the clinical journey of a COVID-19 patient, beyond the ED, with insights from the critical care unit. There are some concepts here that we don’t have time to do full justice to in the podcast, so there is a comprehensive set of "show notes" and all the references at

April 15, 2020  

Ep 161 - COVID-19 Journal Club #1

Professor Rick Body is joined by Prof Paul Klapper (Professor of Clinical Virology), Dr Charlie Reynolds (NIHR Clinical Research Fellow), Prof Pam Vallely (Professor of Medical Virology), Dr Anisa Jafar (Academic Clinical Lecturer) and Prof Simon Carley (you know him...) to discuss six papers about COVID-19 infection. 

03:10 - Paper 1 – Guan et al. Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 in China. NEJM Feb 28 2020

16:54 Paper 2 – Zou et al. Single Cell RNA-SEQ Data Analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-NCOV infection. Frontiers of Medicine. Mar 12 2020.

21:43 Paper 3 – Gautret et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment of COVID-19: Results of an open-label non-randomised clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 20 Mar 2020

25:25 Paper 4 – Cao et al. A trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19. NEJM Mar 18 2020

29:35 Paper 5 – Cui et al. Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe Coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Apr 9 2020 doi:10.1111/jth.14830

34:14 Paper 6 – Lynarts et al. Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 infection: systematic review and critical appraisal. BMJ. Apr 7 2020 BMJ 2020;369:m1328

April 5, 2020  

Ep 160 - March 2020 Round Up

Iain and Simon discuss Covid19 and more in this review of the best of the blog from March 2020.

April 2, 2020  

Ep 159 - Covid 19. Lessons from Sports and Exercise Medicinewith John Rogers and Nathan Lewis

Simon interviews Dr John Rogers and Dr Nathan Lewis on respiratory infection prevention.

John a Sports and Exercise Medicine Consultant in Manchester. He is also Chief Medical Officer for British Triathlon and Visiting Professor in Sport & Exercise Medicine at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Nathan is lead performance nutrition scientist at the English Institute of Sport and at ORRECO.

These two academics take us through how sports science might be able to support our wellbeing during the Covid19 pandemic.



  1. Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes
  2. Probiotics 
  3. Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
  4. Vitamin C for prevention and treatment of pneumonia
  5. Vitamin C and common cold 
  6. Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  7. Vitamin C and Infections
  8. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage




March 29, 2020  

Ep 158 - Understanding Fear and Anxiety around COVID19 with Liz Crowe

The world is consumed by the Coronavirus pandemic, but how do we look after ourselves? Liz and Iain discuss some strategies to stay well over the coming weeks and months. Recorded on 25th March 2020.

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